1907. Many Roma in Germany leave for
other countries in Western Europe.
Django Reinhardt, famous
jazz/blues guitarist, is born in Ouchie, Belgium.
1908. The Children's Act in England
makes education compulsory for travelling
Gypsy children, but only for half the year. This is continued in the
Education Act, but many Gypsy children still have no schooling.
1909. Switzerland asks Germany,
Italy, France and Austria to exchange
information on the movements of Roma across their shared borders, and
this is unsuccessful, the Swiss Department of Justice begins a national
register of Roma, based upon the Munich model.
Recommendations coming from
a "Gypsy policy conference" in Hungary include the confiscation of
their animals and carts, and permanent branding for purposes of
1912. The French government
introduces the carnet anthropométrique, a
document containing personal data, including photograph and
all Roma are required to carry. This remains in effect until 1970.
1914. A new law prohibits all further
immigration of Roma into Sweden. The
law is very efficient and Roma in Sweden are isolated from their
other European countries. The law remains in effect until 1954. Norway
Denmark have similar laws during the same period.
Norway gives some thirty
Roma Norwegian nationality.
1918. In Holland, the Caravan and
House Boat Law introduces controls over the
movements of nomads.
1919. Article 108 of the National
Constitution of the Weimar Republic guarantees
Roma and Sinti full and equal citizenship rights, but these are not
In Bulgaria, the Romani
organisation Istiqbal (Future) is founded.
1920. On July 27th, the Minister of
Public Welfare in Düsseldorf forbids Roma
and Sinti from entering any public washing or recreational facilities
pools, public baths, spas, parks).
Karl Binding and magistrate Alfred Hoche argue for the killing of those
"Ballastexistenzen," i.e. whose lives
are seen merely as ballast,
or dead weight, within humanity; this includes Roma. The concept of Lebensunwertesleben,
or "lives unworthy (or undeserving) of life," becomes central to Nazi
race policy in 1933, when a law incorporating this same phrase is
Hitler on July 14th that year.