1921. The new Czechoslovak Republic
recognises Roma as a separate "nationality."
This legislation is later repealed.
1922. In Baden, requirements are
introduced that all Roma and Sinti be
photographed and fingerprinted, and have documents completed on them.
1923. In Bulgaria, the Romani journal
Istiqbal (Future) commences
1924. In Slovakia, a group of Roma
are tried for cannibalism. They are
1925. The Soviet Romani Writers'
Association in the Soviet Union is
founded, then suppressed.
A conference is held on the Gypsy
question, at which Bavaria proposes a law to compulsorily settle
Sinti, and to incarcerate those not regularly employed (referred to as arbeitscheu
or "work shy") to work camps for up to two years, for reasons of
"public security." This applies equally to settled and non-settled
1926. The Swiss Pro Juventute
Foundation begins, "in keeping with
the theories of eugenics and progress," to take children away from Roma
without their consent, to change their names, and to put them into
homes. This program continues until 1973, and is not brought to light
1980s. Switzerland has apologized to the Roma, but adamantly refuses to
them access to the records which will help them locate the children
On July 16th, The Bavarian
"Law for Combatting Gypsies, Vagabonds and Idlers" proposed at
the 1925 conference is passed. It is justified in the legislative
thus: "[Gypsies] are by nature opposed to all work, and find it
difficult to tolerate any restriction of their nomadic life; nothing,
therefore, hits them harder than loss of liberty, coupled with forced
labor." The law requires the registration of all Roma and Sinti,
or not, with the police, registry office and unemployment agency in
district. Bavarian State Counselor Hermann Reich praises "the enactment
the Gypsy law. . . This law gives the police the legal hold it
thorough-going action against this constant danger to the security of
1927. Steve Kaslov founds the Roma Red
Dress Association in the United
States; Kaslov meets with President Franklin Roosevelt for support of
In Czechoslovakia, law
no.117 prohibits Romani nomadism and bars nomads from "leading the life
Gypsies." Roma identity cards are introduced for. Children under
may be taken from their families and placed in children's homes or with
R. L. Turner proves that the
phonetics of the Romani language had earlier been linked with the
of Hindi languages in India.
On November 3rd, a Prussian
ministerial decree is issued requiring all Roma to be registered
documentation "in the same manner as individuals being sought by means
wanted posters, witnesses, photographs and fingerprints." Infants are
be fingerprinted, and those over the age of six to carry identity cards
their photograph as well. Between November 23rd and 26th, armed raids
carried out by the police on Roma communities throughout Prussia to
decree of November 3rd. Eight thousand are processed as a result.
Bavaria institutes a law
forbidding Roma and Sinti to travel in family groups, or to own
over sixteen are liable for inprisonment in work camps, while those
proof of Bavarian birth are expelled from Bavaria.
The journal Romani Zorya
(Romani Dawn) is founded in Russia and starts publication in 1929.
1928. In Bavaria, an ordinance is
approved placing Sinti and Roma under
permanent police surveillance. In May, the same law is reissued and
The act is in direct violation of the provisions of the Weimar
Professor Hans F. Günther
writes that "it was the Gypsies who introduced foreign blood into
1929. On April 3rd, resulting from
the law of 1926, the jurisdiction of the
Munich office is extended to include the whole of Germany; the German
Police Commission renames it The Central Office for the Fight
Gypsies in Germany. On April 16th and 17th, police departments
are told to send fingerprints and other data on Roma both to this
office and to
the International Criminology Bureau (Interpol) headquarters in Vienna.
closely together, they enforce restrictions on travel for Roma without
documents, and impose up to two years' detention in "rehabilitation
camps" on Roma sixteen years and older.
In the USSR, Nikolai
Pankov's book Buti I Dzinaiben (Work and Knowledge) is
Michael Kwiek II succeeds his father Gregory as "King
of the Gypsies" in Poland and is recognized as such by the Polish
In the USSR, the first issue
of Nevo Drom (New Way) is published.
The Norwegian journalist
Scharfenberg recommends that all Roma be sterilized.
1931. The Moscow Gypsy
started as a Soviet
experiment; it still exists today.