1647 to 1714

1647. Roma are punished by the Louis XIV regency of France for being "Bohemians." Punishment is the galleys.

1652. Matiasz Korolewicz is conferred the title "King of the Gypsies" by the Polish Royal Chancery.

1650s. Last known execution for being Gypsies, in Suffolk, England. Others are banished to America.

1660. Roma are prohibited from residence in France by Louis XIV. Punishment is banishment. A second offense results in the galleys or corporal punishment.

1660-1800. The identity of the English Gypsy Romanichal group has been formed. They survive by working for local people who know them.

1661. Johann Georg II, elector of Saxony, imposes the death penalty to any Roma caught in his territory.

1666. Punished by Louis XIV of France for being "Bohemians." Men are sent to the galleys. Women and girls are flogged, branded and banished.

1682. Louis XIV reiterates his previous policy: punishment for being "Bohemian." Men are sentenced to the galleys for life on the first offence. Women's heads are shaved and children are sent to the poor house. For a second offence, women are branded and banished.

1685. Portugal deports Roma to Brasil, and makes it a crime to speak Romani.

1686. Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg, decrees that Roma are not to be allowed trade or shelter.

There is a sudden and radical change in the attitude of the Swedish Lutheran Church. Roma are now accepted and their children may be christened.


1700-16 and 1720-22. In Lorraine, Roma are punished for begging and vagabondage in general. Punishment is banishment. A second offence results in iron collars, branding and banishment.

1710. In Prague, Joseph I issues an edict that all adult Roma men will be hanged without trial and that boys and women be mutilated. In Bohemia, the left ear is to be cut off. In Moravia the right ear is to be cut off. Lodging or otherwise aiding Roma is punishable by up to six months forced labour.

Prince Adolf Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz issues orders that all Roma can be flogged, branded, expelled, or executed if they return. Children under ten are to be removed and raised by Christian families.

1711. Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony authorizes shooting of Roma if they resist arrest.

1711-1772. Cinka Panna is one of the most popular musicians in Slovakia and eastern Europe. A maestro violinist, she tours with her own Romani musical ensemble.

1714. British merchants and planters apply to the Privy Council to ship Gypsies to the Caribbean, avowedly to be used as slaves.

In Mainz, all Roma are to be executed without trial on the grounds that their way of life is outlawed.

Romani music bands are recorded to travel in the Austro-Hungarian court of Esterháza. They accompany the dancing of soldiers playing verbunkos, in recruiting efforts for Nicolas the Magnificent's military operations.