1647. Roma are punished by the Louis
XIV regency of France for being
"Bohemians." Punishment is the galleys.
1652. Matiasz Korolewicz is conferred
the title "King of the Gypsies"
by the Polish Royal Chancery.
1650s. Last known execution for being
Gypsies, in Suffolk, England. Others are
banished to America.
1660. Roma are prohibited from
residence in France by Louis XIV. Punishment
is banishment. A second offense results in the galleys or corporal
1660-1800. The identity of the English
Gypsy Romanichal group has been
formed. They survive by working for local people who know them.
1661. Johann Georg II, elector of
Saxony, imposes the death penalty to any
Roma caught in his territory.
1666. Punished by Louis XIV of France
for being "Bohemians."
Men are sent to the galleys. Women and girls are flogged, branded and
1682. Louis XIV reiterates his
previous policy: punishment for being
"Bohemian." Men are sentenced to the galleys for life on the first
offence. Women's heads are shaved and children are sent to the poor
a second offence, women are branded and banished.
1685. Portugal deports Roma to
Brasil, and makes it a crime to speak Romani.
1686. Frederick William, elector of
Brandenburg, decrees that Roma are not to
be allowed trade or shelter.
There is a sudden and
radical change in the attitude of the Swedish Lutheran Church. Roma are
accepted and their children may be christened.
and 1720-22. In
Lorraine, Roma are punished for begging and
vagabondage in general. Punishment is banishment. A second offence
iron collars, branding and banishment.
1710. In Prague, Joseph I issues an
edict that all adult Roma men will be
hanged without trial and that boys and women be mutilated. In Bohemia,
ear is to be cut off. In Moravia the right ear is to be cut off.
otherwise aiding Roma is punishable by up to six months forced labour.
Prince Adolf Frederick of
Mecklenburg-Strelitz issues orders that all Roma can be flogged,
expelled, or executed if they return. Children under ten are to be
raised by Christian families.
1711. Elector Frederick Augustus I of
Saxony authorizes shooting of Roma if
they resist arrest.
1711-1772. Cinka Panna is one of the most
popular musicians in Slovakia and
eastern Europe. A maestro violinist, she tours with her own
1714. British merchants and planters
apply to the Privy Council to ship
Gypsies to the Caribbean, avowedly to be used as slaves.
In Mainz, all Roma are to be
executed without trial on the grounds that their way of life is
Romani music bands
recorded to travel in the Austro-Hungarian court of Esterháza.
the dancing of soldiers playing verbunkos, in recruiting
Nicolas the Magnificent's military operations.