1745. Gitanos in Spain must settle in
assigned places within two weeks. The
punishment for failure is execution. "It is legal to fire upon them to
take their life." The Churches no longer provide asylum. Armed troops
ordered to comb the countryside.
1748. All Swedish laws concerning Gypsies
are integrated into one law,
intending to prevent further immigration and to force Roma to settle.
1749. The year of the "Great Gypsy
Round-up" in Spain.
Gitanos are separated from "the bad and the good" through inquiries
and witnesses reports. For the "bad," punishment is forced public
works. Escapees are hanged. Motherless girls are sent to poor houses or
service for "honest" people. Older girls and wives of sentenced men
with children under seven are "educated in Christian doctrine and the
fear of God" and sent to factories.
1753-54. Stephan Valyi, a Hungarian
student at the University of Leyden
discovers the Panjabi root of the Romani language from
words spoken by three university students from Malabar to the Roma of
1759. Roma are banned from Saint
1761. Maria Theresa, Empress of
Hungary, passes first laws in Europe trying
to settle and reform, or assimilate, Roma, calling them the "New
1763. In the Austro-Hungarian empire,
Székely Von Doba first brings Pastor
Stephan Valyi's findings about the Indian origins of the Roma to
attention in the November 6 edition of The Vienna Gazette.
1764. All vagabonds and vagrants
are denied residence in France with
renewed legislation. Adult men are sentenced to the galleys for three
All others are confined to the poor house for three years, and are then
choice of domicile and a trade. Repeated offences by men result in the
nine years, and in several repeat offences, in perpetuity.
1764-1827. János Bihari, Rom
composer and bandleader, popularises "Hungarian
1773. In December, Maria Theresa,
Empress of Hungary, orders all Romani
children over five in the Palatinate of Pressburg and at Fahlendorf to
from their parents. They are transported to distant villages and
peasants to bring them up for a stipend of 12-18 florins a year. Most
children run away to rejoin their families, who take refuge in the
disappear in the plains.
1776. Constantin, Prince of Moldavia,
prohibits marriages to Roma.
1780. English anti-Gypsy laws are
gradually repealed, though not totally,
from this date on.
1782. Joseph II of Hungary, son of
Empress Maria Theresa, issues a 59-point
edict reiterating his policy: schooling for children and compulsory
at religious services; Romani language, clothing and music are
In Hungary, two
are accused and charged with cannibalism.