1782. Joseph II of Hungary, son of
Empress Maria Theresa, issues a 59-point
edict reiterating his policy: schooling for children and compulsory
at religious services; Romani language, clothing and music are
In Hungary, two hundred Roma
are accused and charged with cannibalism.
1783. Spanish legislation reiterates
previous orders. Gitano dress, way of
life, language is forbidden, and settlement is compulsory within ninety
The name Gitano is forbidden and is to be removed from all official
Restrictions on trade and place of residence of Gitanos is lifted.
for failure to observe restrictions is branding. Repeat offenders are
to "death, with no appeal."
Heinrich Grellman of Göttingen
University writes Die Zigeuner. Drawing on the works of previous
writers, he links India as the original
homeland of the Gypsies through their language.
Late 18th century. Count Orlov of Russia organises
the first Romani chorus, headed by Ivan
Sokolov. The chorus members are selected from his Romani serfs.
are a common and popular sport in Germany.
1802. The prefect of the department
of Basses Pyrenees in France issues an
order "to purge the country of Gypsies."
1803. Napolean Bonaparte prohibits
residence of Roma in France. Children,
women and the aged are sentenced to the poor house. Young men are given
choice of joining the navy or army. Adult men are sent to forced
1807. Count Orlov of Russia frees the
artists of his Romani chorus and they
become the first professional chorus in Russia. The group includes the
1811. Trinity Cooper, a Gypsy girl
aged thirteen, demands to be let into a
charity school for "ragged children" in Clapham, near London, with
her two brothers. They are finally admitted.
1816. John Hoyland, a Quaker, writes
the first serious book calling for
better treatment for Gypsies in England. Several charitable projects
but many Gypsies are transported as criminals to Australia.
1822. In the United Kingdom, the
Turnpike Act is introduced. Gypsies found
camping on the roadside are fined.
1830s. First wooden horse-drawn
covered waggons for Gypsies are developed in
1830. Authorities in Nordhausen,
Germany remove Roma children from their
families for fostering with non-Roma.
1834. The governour of Wallachia,
Alexander Ghica, frees all state slaves.
1837. George Borrow translates Saint
Luke's Gospel into Romani.
1842. The hospodar of
Moldavia, Mihail Sturdza, emancipates all state
slaves; however, in Wallachia and Moldavia private ownership of
slaves is still legally permitted.
1844. The Moldavian Church liberates
its Romani slaves.
1847. The Wallachian Church liberates
its Romani slaves.
1848. Emancipation of
serfs (including Roma) in Transylvania.