1848. Emancipation of serfs
(including Roma) in Transylvania.
1855. Gobineau publishes his book Essai
sur l'inégalité des races humaines,
which argues that human beings fall into higher and lower races, with
"Aryan" race, and particularly the Nordic people, ranking at the top.
This had particular impact upon German philosophical and political
A decree issued in the Duchy
of Baden warns the citizens that "in recent times, Gypsies, especially
from Alsace, have frequently been re-entering and travelling about with
families, purportedly to engage in trade but mostly for the purposes of
or other illegal activities."
1856. The Slobuzenja.
Abolition of slavery in Romania; large-scale
emigrations of Roma to western Europe and America begin.
1864. Complete legal freedom for Roma
in the united Balkan states is granted
by Prince Ioan Alexandru Couza.
1868. In Holland, Richard Liebich's
work on Roma introduces the phrase
"lives unworthy of life" with specific reference to them, and later
used as a racial category against Roma in Nazi Germany.
1870. Imperial Chancellor Otto von
Bismarck circulates a letter dated
November 18th demanding the "complete prohibition of foreign Gypsies
crossing the German border," and that "they will be transported by
the closest route to their country of origin." He also states that Roma
Germany be asked to show documentary proof of citizenship, and that if
not forthcoming, they be denied travelling passes.
Roma are given equal rights with other Muslims in the Ottoman Empire
1876. Cesare Lombroso publishes his
influential work L'uomo deliquente,
which contains a lengthy chapter on the genetically criminal character
Roma. This is translated into many languages, including German and
has a profound effect upon western legal attitudes.
A decree is issued in
Bavaria which calls for the strictest examination of documentation held
Roma, both at the borders and inland, and the confiscation of their
permits wherever the slightest reason warrants. Their horses are also
examined and confiscated if deemed unhealthy. The movements of those
who are allowed to remain are still to be carefully monitored.
1879. A national conference of Roma
is convened in Kisfalu, Hungary.
Nomadism is banned in Serbia.
1880s. Agricultural depression in
England brings poverty to many Gypsies, who
move to squatter areas near towns.
Argentina forbids Roma entry
1884. Dr. Sonya Kavalevsky, a Romni,
is appointed professor of mathematics at
Stockholm University becoming the first female professor in
1885-95. Unsuccessful attempts in
England to introduce the Moveable Dwellings
Bills in Parliament to regulate Gypsy life.
1885. Roma are excluded by
United States immigration policy; many are returned