1885. Roma are excluded by United
States immigration policy; many are returned
1886. Chancellor von Bismarck issues
a directive to the governments of all
regions of Germany alerting them to "complaints about the mischief
by bands of Gypsies travelling in the Reich, and their increasing
of the population," and states that foreign Roma are to be dealt with
particular. This leads to the creation of many regional policies
deport non-German-born Roma.
Nomadism is banned in
1889. The Showmen's Guild formed to
oppose the Moveable Dwellings Bills.
Showmen begin to become a distinct group from other Travellers or
1890. The Swabian parliament
organizes a conference on the "Gypsy
Scum" (Das Zigeunergeschmeiß), and suggests means by which
presence of Roma could be signalled from village to village by ringing
bells. The military is empowered to apprehend and move Roma on.
1899. An Information Agency, the Central
Office for Fighting the Gypsy
Nuisance (Nachrichtendienst in Bezug auf die Zigeuner), is
established in Munich under the direction of Alfred Dillmann to collate
on Roma movement throughout German lands, and a register of all Gypsies
the age of six is begun. This includes obtaining photographs,
other genealogical data, and particularly information relating to
"criminality." This leads to two initiatives: Dillmann's Zigeuner-Buch
(1905), and the December 1911 conference. This agency does not
down until 1970.
1904. The Prussian Landtag
unanimously adopts a proposition to
regulate Gypsy movement and means of livelihood.
1905. Alfred Dillmann's Zigeuner-Buch
appears in Germany. This
consists of three parts; an introduction which presents the arguments
controlling Roma, a register, 310 pages long, of over 5,000 Roma,
name, date and place of birth, genealogy and kinship, criminal record
on, and lastly a collection of photographs of Roma and Sinti from
police files. The introduction maintains that the German people are
"suffering" from a "plague" of Roma, that they are "a
pest against which society must unflaggingly defend itself," and that
"must be controlled by the police most severely," being
"ruthlessly punished" when necessary. The notion of the particular
dangers of mixed Romani and white individuals, whom Dillmann considers
constitute almost the entire Roma population, resurfaces in the
in 1935. These racially-motivated statements also support the
emphasis on the Romani genetic tendency toward criminal behavior.
Voting rights are demanded
for Roma at conference in Sofia, Bulgaria.
1906. On February 17th, the Prussian
Minister of the Interior issues a
directive entitled Die Bekämpfung des Zigeunerunwesens
the Gypsy nuisance") which lists bilateral agreements guaranteeing the
expulsion of Roma from those countries, with the Austro-Hungarian
Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Russia
Switzerland. Police are authorized to prosecute Roma for breaking the
which offenses include "lighting fires in the woods, illegal fishing,
illegal camping" and so on. Temporary school attendance is forbidden
children whose families are travelling through an area
"Gypsy licenses," required by all those wanting to stay there. These
are given out only if the applicant has a fixed domicile, no serious
convictions, educational provision for their children, and proper tax
Those qualifying are nevertheless not allowed to settle locally.